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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, Effects & More

Updated: Mar 27

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental health condition that affects individuals who have experienced or witnessed traumatic events. In the United States alone, PTSD affects millions of people, with an estimated 5% of adults experiencing PTSD in any given year. While anyone can develop PTSD, certain groups, such as veterans, first responders, and survivors of abuse or natural disasters, are more prone to experiencing it. Additionally, research suggests that women are more likely to develop PTSD than men, although the reasons for this gender disparity are not entirely clear.

What is Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Symptoms, Effects & More

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop in individuals who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event. These events may include combat, sexual assault, natural disasters, accidents, or any situation that threatened the person's safety or well-being. PTSD manifests through a range of symptoms, including intrusive thoughts or memories of the trauma, avoidance of triggers associated with the event, negative changes in mood or cognition, and heightened arousal. It is a complex disorder that can significantly impact an individual's daily functioning and quality of life, but with proper treatment and support, many people with PTSD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

Symptoms for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

  • Intrusive thoughts or memories related to the traumatic event

  • Flashbacks or nightmares

  • Avoidance of reminders or triggers associated with the trauma

  • Hypervigilance or heightened arousal

  • Negative changes in mood or cognition, such as guilt, shame, or distorted beliefs about oneself or others

  • Difficulty concentrating or remembering details of the traumatic event

  • Changes in sleep patterns, including insomnia or excessive sleeping

  • Irritability or outbursts of anger

First-line treatment

First-line treatment for PTSD primarily involves psychotherapy, with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) being the most commonly utilized approaches. 

CBT is a structured form of therapy that focuses on helping individuals identify and challenge negative thought patterns and behaviors that are associated with the traumatic event. Through various techniques such as cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy, CBT aims to modify dysfunctional beliefs and reactions to trauma triggers. By gradually exposing individuals to the memories and situations that evoke distress, CBT assists them in processing the traumatic experience and developing healthier coping mechanisms.

On the other hand, EMDR is a specialized form of therapy that incorporates bilateral stimulation, typically through guided eye movements, hand tapping, or auditory tones, to facilitate the processing of traumatic memories. During EMDR sessions, individuals are guided to recall distressing memories while simultaneously engaging in bilateral stimulation, which is believed to stimulate the brain's natural healing processes. This process helps individuals reprocess traumatic memories, making them less distressing and reducing their emotional intensity. EMDR also aims to replace negative beliefs about oneself and the world with more adaptive ones, promoting a sense of empowerment and self-efficacy.

Both CBT and EMDR have been extensively researched and have demonstrated efficacy in reducing PTSD symptoms and improving overall functioning. They equip individuals with skills to effectively manage distressing thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to their traumatic experiences. Additionally, these therapies empower individuals to regain a sense of control over their lives and relationships, fostering resilience and promoting long-term recovery from PTSD.

Second-line treatment

Second-line treatment for PTSD is typically considered when individuals do not respond sufficiently to first-line interventions, such as psychotherapy. In such cases, medications may be prescribed to help alleviate symptoms and improve overall functioning. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are commonly used medications for PTSD.

These antidepressants work by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain, which are involved in regulating mood and emotional responses. By restoring the balance of these neurotransmitters, SSRIs and SNRIs can help reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, and intrusive thoughts associated with PTSD. 

Examples of SSRIs commonly used for PTSD include sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), while SNRIs like venlafaxine (Effexor) may also be prescribed.

In addition to pharmacotherapy, adjunctive therapies can complement second-line treatment approaches and further enhance symptom management. Practices such as yoga, mindfulness meditation, and acupuncture have shown promise in reducing symptoms of PTSD and promoting relaxation. Yoga combines physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation techniques to promote mindfulness and alleviate stress. Mindfulness meditation involves focusing one's attention on the present moment without judgment, which can help individuals develop greater awareness of their thoughts and emotions and reduce reactivity to trauma triggers. Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese medicine practice, involves inserting thin needles into specific points on the body to alleviate pain and promote overall well-being. 

While more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these adjunctive therapies, many individuals with PTSD report benefits such as reduced anxiety, improved sleep, and enhanced overall quality of life.

Treatment-Resistant PTSD

In some cases, individuals may not respond to traditional forms of treatment for PTSD. Treatment-resistant PTSD poses a significant challenge for clinicians and may require a more comprehensive and individualized approach. This may include alternative forms of therapy, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) or intensive outpatient programs, as well as experimental treatments like ketamine-assisted therapy or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). It's essential for individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD to work closely with mental health professionals to explore all available options and develop a personalized treatment plan.

Other Lifestyle Changes to Consider

1. Regular exercise

Incorporating regular physical activity into daily routines can help reduce symptoms of PTSD by promoting overall well-being and stress reduction.

2. Healthy diet

Maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet supports physical and mental health, aiding in symptom management and recovery from PTSD.

3. Adequate sleep

Prioritizing quality sleep hygiene practices and ensuring sufficient rest can improve mood, cognition, and overall functioning.

4. Avoiding alcohol and substance abuse

Limiting or abstaining from alcohol and substance use can prevent exacerbation of PTSD symptoms and promote healthier coping strategies.

5. Relaxation techniques

Engaging in activities such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, or spending time in nature can promote relaxation and reduce stress levels.

6. Building a support network

Establishing a strong support network of understanding friends, family, and peers can provide validation, empathy, and encouragement in the recovery process.

Understanding PTSD flashbacks

PTSD flashbacks are vivid and distressing memories of traumatic events that intrude into an individual's consciousness, often feeling as though the traumatic event is happening again in the present moment. These flashbacks can be triggered by various stimuli, including sights, sounds, smells, or sensations reminiscent of the traumatic event, as well as certain situations or stressors that evoke feelings of fear or helplessness.

Symptoms and characteristics

During a flashback, individuals may experience a range of symptoms, including intense emotions such as fear, horror, or helplessness, as well as physical sensations like rapid heartbeat, sweating, or trembling. Time distortion is common, with individuals feeling as though they are reliving the traumatic event in real-time, often losing awareness of their surroundings and current circumstances.

Flashbacks can vary in duration and intensity, ranging from brief and mild to prolonged and severe episodes that significantly disrupt daily functioning.


PTSD flashbacks can be triggered by various stimuli, which may evoke memories of the traumatic event and elicit intense emotional and physical responses. Common triggers include sensory cues such as specific sights, sounds, smells, or tactile sensations associated with the trauma. Additionally, certain situations or environments that resemble the circumstances of the traumatic event can also serve as triggers. It's important to recognize that triggers can vary widely from person to person and may be influenced by individual experiences and sensitivities. Identifying personal triggers is essential for developing effective coping strategies and minimizing the impact of flashbacks on daily life.

Avoidance behaviors

In an attempt to manage their symptoms and avoid the distressing experience of flashbacks, individuals with PTSD may develop avoidance behaviors. These behaviors involve actively steering clear of situations, people, or places that are associated with the traumatic event or serve as triggers for flashbacks. While avoidance may provide temporary relief from distress, it can ultimately perpetuate the cycle of PTSD by reinforcing fear and maintaining a sense of threat. Avoidance behaviors can interfere with daily functioning, limit social interactions, and contribute to feelings of isolation and detachment from others.


  • Navigating triggers and avoidance patterns can pose significant challenges for individuals living with PTSD.

  • The fear of encountering triggers or experiencing flashbacks may lead to hypervigilance, anxiety, and an overwhelming urge to avoid potentially triggering situations altogether.

  • Avoidance can reinforce feelings of vulnerability and prevent individuals from fully engaging in life, leading to social isolation and impaired functioning.

Coping strategies

1. Gradual exposure therapy

Involves systematically confronting triggering stimuli or situations in a controlled and supportive environment. Through repeated exposure, individuals can learn to tolerate distressing emotions and reduce the power of triggers to evoke flashbacks.

2. Cognitive restructuring

Helps challenge negative beliefs and assumptions about triggers, allowing individuals to reinterpret them in less threatening ways. By reframing thoughts and perceptions, individuals can develop a more balanced perspective on their triggers.

3. Relaxation techniques

Techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, or mindfulness meditation can help individuals manage physiological arousal and reduce the intensity of emotional reactions to triggers. These techniques promote a sense of calm and relaxation, counteracting the heightened stress response associated with PTSD.

4. Seeking support

Reaching out to mental health professionals, support groups, or trusted peers can provide validation, guidance, and encouragement in confronting triggers and breaking free from avoidance patterns. Connecting with others who understand and validate their experiences can reduce feelings of isolation and promote a sense of belonging.

5. Taking control

By addressing triggers and avoidance behaviors head-on, individuals with PTSD can gradually regain a sense of control over their lives and move towards healing and recovery. Taking proactive steps to confront triggers and develop adaptive coping strategies empowers individuals to reclaim agency and autonomy in managing their symptoms.


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a complex and challenging condition that can have profound effects on individuals' lives. However, with proper treatment and support, it is possible to manage symptoms and improve overall quality of life. By understanding the symptoms, seeking appropriate treatment, and making positive lifestyle changes, individuals with PTSD can work towards healing and recovery. It's essential for society as a whole to recognize and destigmatize PTSD, ensuring that those affected feel supported and empowered to seek help when needed.

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About Josh Brar: 

Author - Josh Brar

Hello, I'm Josh Brar. My journey includes over 15 years in the pharmaceutical industry, which took an unexpected path in my 40s due to my struggle with treatment-resistant depression. Leveraging my pharmaceutical background, I gained extensive knowledge about mental disorders. Despite exploring numerous treatments, the challenge of finding relatable information and community support was significant. This inspired me to establish this platform, with the aspiration of it being a helpful resource for others on similar paths.



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